Yield and physicochemical characteristics of grapes from vines treated with extract of Ecklonia maxima

Renato Vasconcelos Botelho, Carine Rusin, Giuseppe Tumbarello, Adamo Domenico Rombolà


This trial aimed to evaluate the effects of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak®) on yield and physicochemical characteristics of the clusters from wine grapevines. The treatments consisted of different doses of the commercial product Kelpak®, concentrate prepared of seaweed Ecklonia maxima, rich in natural auxins, as follow: T1 – Water, T2 – Extract of Ecklonia maxima – 2.5 L ha-1, T3 – Extract of Ecklonia maxima – 3.75 L ha-1,  applied with a hand sprayer with a volume about 170 mL per plant, equivalent to 900 L ha-1. The following variables were evaluated: weight of clusters, number of clusters per plant, number of berries per cluster, weight of berries, width and length of the clusters, soluble solids content, pH and trititable acidity. The physiological disorders in clusters were visually evaluated as follow: cracking, dehydration, shot berries and cluster compactness. For the grapevines cv. Merlot, the application of Kelpak at 2.5 L ha-1 increased the length of clusters and decreased the occurrence of shot berries, compared to the treatment with 3.5 L ha-1, but without differences in relation to the control with water. For the cv. Cabernet Sauvignon there was an increase in cluster compactness and reduction of berries dehydration for the incidence between 0-5% of the berries for the treatment with 2.5 L ha-1 of Ecklonia maxima extract, differing from the control. Considering the results, the use of Ecklonia maxima has a potential to increase grapes quality, and new researches should be carried out to improve its performance in commercial vineyards.


Auxins, Physiological disorders, Seaweed extracts.

Full Text:



CAMILI, E. C.; RODRIGUES, J. D.; ONO, E. O. Giberelina, citocinina e auxina na qualidade química de bagas de uva superior seedless. Bioscience Journal, v. 9, n. 6, p. 1761-1770, 2013.

COSTANTINI, E.; LANDI, L.; SILVESTRONI, O.; PANDOLFINI, T.; SPENA, A.; MEZZETTI, B. Auxin synthesis-encoding transgene enhances grape fecundity. Plant Physiology, v. 143, p.1689–1694, 2007. DOI: 10.1104/pp.106.095232

CHOJNACKA, K.; SAEID, A.; WITKOWSKA, Z; TUHY, L. Biologically active compounds in seaweed extracts—the prospects for the application. The open conference proceedings journal, v. 3, p. 20-28, 2012.

CROUCH, I.J.; SMITH, M.T.; VAN STADEN, J.; M.J. LEWIS, M.J.; HOAD, G.V. Identification of auxins in a commercial seaweed concentrate. Journal of Plant Physiology, v.139, n.5, p.590-594, 1992. DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(11)80375-5

CROUCH, I.J.; VAN STADEN, J. Evidence for rooting factors in a seaweed concentrate prepared from Ecklonia maxima. Journal of Plant Physiology, v.137, n.3, p.319-322, 1991. DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(11)80138-0

FEATONBY-SMITH, B.C.; VAN STADEN, J. The Effect of Seaweed Concentrate and Fertilizer on the Growth of Beta vulgaris. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie, v. 112, n.2, p.155–162, 1983. DOI: 10.1016/S0044-328X(83)80030-0

FERREIRA, D. F. Sisvar: a computer statistical analysis system. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, v. 35, n.6, p.1039-1042, 2011. DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542011000600001

GUERIOS, I. T.; CHIAROTTI, F.; CUQUEL, F. L.; BIASI, L. A. Growth regulators improve bunch and berry characteristics in 'Niagara Rosada' grape. In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes, Brisbane. 2014. Anais, IV 1115, p. 243-248.

LIMA, J. D.; SANTA ROSA, J.; MORAES, W. D. S; DA SILVA, S. H. M. G.; ROZANE, D. E.; GOMES, E. N. Período de formação do cacho e biorreguladores naprodução e qualidade da banana 'Grande Naine'. Ciência rural, v. 45, n. 8, p. 1451-1454, 2015. DOI: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20140622

LUCKWILL, L.C. Studies of fruit development in relation to plant hormones. II. The effect of naphthalene acetic acid in fruit set and fruit development in apples. Horticultural Society Science, v.28, n.1, p.25-32, 1953. DOI: 10.1080/00221589.1953.11513768

MACEDO, W. R.; TERRA, M. M.; TECCHIO, M. A.; PIRES, E. J. P.; FERNANDES, G. M.; VILLAR, L.; MOURA, M. F. Aplicação de reguladores vegetais em uva apirena ‘Centennial Seedless’. Ciência Rural, v. 40, n. 8, p. 1714-1719, 2010. DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782010005000132

MOREIRA, E.R.; BOLIANI, A.C.; SANTOS, P.C.; CORRÊA, L. de S.; MARIANO, F.A. de C.; ATTÍLIO, L.B. Efeito do ácido giberélico e thidiazuron na qualidade de cachos e bagas de uva 'Niagara Rosada'. Tecnologia e Ciência Agropecuária, v.4, p.17-23, 2010.

NORRIE, J.; KEATHLEY, J. P. Benefits of Ascophyllum nodosum marine-plant extract applications to ‘Thompson seedless’ grape production. Acta horticulturae, v. 727, p. 243-247, 2006. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.727.27

OIV. Compendium of International Methods of Wine and Must Analysis. International Organisation of Vine and Wine: Paris. p. 154-196, 2012.

PAPENFUS, H.B.; KULKARNI, M.G.; STIRK, W.A.; FINNIE, J.F.; VAN STADEN, J. Effect of a commercial seaweed extract (Kelpak®) and polyamines on nutrient-deprived (N, P and K) okra seedlings. Scientia Horticulturae, v.151, p.142-146, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2012.12.022

PIRES, E.J.P.; POMMER, C.V. Fisiologia da videira. In: POMMER, C.V. (ed.). Uva: tecnolgia de produção, pós-colheita, Mercado. Porto Alegre: Cinco Continentes, 2003. p.250-294.

ROBINSON, J. (ed). The Oxford Companion to Wine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

STIRK, W.A.; LOURENS, A.G.; NOVÁK, O.; STRNAD, M.; STADEN, J.V. Changes in cytokinin and auxin concentrations in seaweed concentrates when stored at an elevated temperature. Journal of Applied Phycology, v.16, p.31-39, 2004. DOI: 10.1023/B:JAPH.0000019057.45363.f5

TARAKHOVSKAYA, E.R.; MASLOV, Y.I.; SHISHOVA, M.F. Phytohormones in Algae. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, v.54, p. 163-170, 2007. DOI: 10.1134/S1021443707020021

TECCHIO, M.A.; LEONEL, S.; CAMILI, E.C.; MOREIRA, G.C.; PAIOLI-PIRES, E.J.; RODRIGUES, J.D. Uso de bioestimulante na videira ‘Niagara Rosada’. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, v.30, p.1236-1240, 2006.

ZODAPE, S. T.; GUPTA, A.; BHANDARI, S. C.; RAWAT, U. S.; CHAUDHARY, D. R.; ESWARAN, K.; CHIKARA, J. Foliar application of seaweed sap as biostimulant for enhancement of yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research v. 70, p. 215-219, 2011.